Bad News Letter & How to Tell Someone Bad News

Bad News Letter Or In Person | BAD NEWS STRATEGY

When communicating bad news (either spoken or written letter), use the following step-by-step strategy:

Bad News Letter Or In Person | 1. Provide a Buffer

Don’t hit the person right off with the bad news. You should ease into the information. A buffer can be:

-"Thank you for taking the time to write me about the unfortunate experience you had at our restaurant this past weekend."

-"I agree that a product you purchase should last longer than a few months."

-"I’m sorry for the delay in getting back to you concerning your loan application."

Bad News Letter Or In Person | Technique Used In Negotiation

The “buffer” is a technique used in negotiation. Finding something that can be agreed upon by both parties sets a more positive tone for future negotiation.

There are other possible buffers, whatever seems to be appropriate (and sincere) for the situation.

Bad News Letter Or In Person | 2. Give Explanation/Provide Information

In this step, you are providing the information that the reader/listener will need to understand the outcome. For example, when responding to a job applicant you did not hire, you might write, "We had many excellent applicants for this position—making it a difficult decision." Sometimes this step is simply a neutral piece of information that sets a tone for what’s to come. "We pride ourselves on offering customers the best possible service."

Bad News Letter Or In Person | 3. Offer the Decision (Either Stated or Implied)

One of the more interesting parts of this step is to decide whether you directly state the decision ("We’re not refunding your money" or "You didn’t get the job.") or imply the decision ("We gladly refund money within 90 days of purchase" or "We found someone who closely matched our desired qualifications.")

My advice would be—whenever possible—to imply the decision. Most of us can better handle a statement like, "We found someone who closely matched our desired qualifications," as opposed to, "You don’t have the skills we’re looking for."

The only time that I believe directly stating the decision would be preferable is when you’re afraid of legal ramifications or that the decision will be misunderstood. In these cases, I would directly and clearly state the decision.

Bad News Letter Or In Person | 4. Provide a Positive/Neutral Closing

Examples of this would be: "Good luck on your future job search," "Although I’m unable to refund your money, I would welcome the chance to repair the product," or "As an individual’s financial situation changes, we are always willing to re-evaluate loan requests."

Bad News Letter Or In Person | COMMUNICATING BAD NEWS

Next to persuasive communication, the most common type of communicating in the workplace is relaying "bad news"—you didn’t get the job, we’re not extending you the loan, we will be closing our branches on Friday, we’ve sold out of the product you ordered, etc.

To “spin” bad news into at least neutral news is an art in and of itself. In fact, many politicians hire people who are talented at making bad situations seem acceptable (e.g. "fooling around" with a White House intern!) This is where the term “Spin Doctor” comes from.

Bad News Letter Or In Person | Soften Bad News

Sometimes you want to soften the bad news to save a customers’/clients’ feelings. Sometimes you do it for legal reasons ("covering" yourself). Here are some hints to communicating bad news:

Bad News Letter Or In Person | Don't Use Personal Pronouns

Try not to use personal pronouns. Instead of saying, "You must not have read the warranty information when you purchased the product—of course, we won’t refund your money after 90 days!" It is much less abrasive to say, "Oftentimes, customers overlook the warranty information that comes in the package."

Don’t be "phony" with your "spin" on the situation. Once I received a letter from my bank that stated, "To serve you better, we will be closing some of our branches on Wednesdays." How does that serve me better? I think we can see through that pretty quickly.

Below is a List of My Most Read Entries
Search Engine Optimization
Presentation Skills & Public Speaking Presentation Tips & Ideas
Sample Marketing Plan IMC Integrated Marketing Communications
72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
Business Letter Format/ Formal Letter Writing

Newspaper Advertising Tips

Below is an overview of the newspaper ads / newspaper advertisement industry, and below that is tips and tricks on choosing the right newspaper company and newspaper ads format. Newspaper ads are still an effective form of advertising, but you have to make sure that they fit the needs of your marcom strategy (linked page is about internet marketing, but applies to all forms of marketing) or marketing communications plan (sample marketing plan).
59 million households within the United States alone, receive at least one newspaper at least once during a weeks time. The newspaper that has the largest circulation is the U.S.A. Today, with a daily circulation of 2.22 million. It is followed closely by the Wall Street Journal with 2.11 million daily circulation.

Newspaper ads used to be the most widely used medium for marketing communications efforts, but in recent years it has been passed up by television in both the amount of use and in the amount of expenditures. There has been a constant decline in the number of people who read newspapers. This has mostly been caused by the increasing numbers of people who going to the Internet to find information. Newspapers have been having a hard time detouring this because of how the Internet allows users to find specific information that suits each individual’s specifications. Most newspapers are trying to establish a web presence to minimize their readership losses.

Most of the newspaper industry’s revenues come through the sale of localized advertising, although the industry has been making efforts to increase national advertising campaigns. The Newspaper Advertising Organization has been been starting to provide a number of services that are helping to facilitate the success of these efforts. Google has introduced an online service that makes selling advertising space easier. Companies that participate in this program are able to sell advertising space quicker and to a larger audience. Perhaps in the future I will do a (some) entries on this service.

Newspaper display ads and classified ads can be a good way to advertise your business, and depending on the type of service or product you offer the ads can dramatically increase business.

Selecting the newspaper to run your advertisement in is of utmost importance. For example if you have a Ebay listing service, don’t pick a large metropolitan newspaper, pick something smaller and more local. People are not going to want to drive all the way across town to drop off there items to ship. Usually large newspaper have a better response for things like real estate ads. Before you select a newspaper, think about what type of service you offer, and about your current customers. Are they local? Or they come from pretty far? If you go to them, how far are you willing to travel to provide service?

Once you have decided what kind of geographical reach you would like the newspaper you are going to run your ad in to have, consider which specific newspaper you are going to use. The Monroe times? The Toledo Blade? If there are newspapers that target specific audiences, you should consider those before you consider other newspaper companies. If you have a hunting supply store, and there is a newspaper in your area that caters to the outdoors audience, then you should probably consider advertising with them.

Next you need to consider cost. Don’t just compare local newspapers and then assume that the cheapest is the best. Ask the publisher what the circulation of the newspaper is. 15,000? 30,000? Daily? Weekly? Calculate the CPM (cost per thousand) for each (divide cost by the number of thousands). When considering cost consider different sizes, what page in the paper you will be on, if you can get an ad above the fold, and if you can have an ad in full color. All of these will have an impact on how “seen” your advertisement will get by the readers of the newspaper.

Consider running the advertisement more then once. Run it for a few weeks. Marketers agree that it takes about three ad impressions for a consumer to properly remember the advertisement message.

Try to make some kind of promotional offer in your advertisement. Don’t just put a logo of your business and expect people to come flocking. Make it a good offer. While working for an advertising company awhile back, we once had this barber who would come in and want us to run his ads with a “dollar off” offers. Then when he didn’t get a good response he couldn’t understand why people didn’t bring them in more. Nobody will remember that, “Oh, I have that dollar off coupon somewhere” when they need a hair cut. If, however, he had done as we advised and given half off to first time customers, I’m convinced that he would have had a better response. If you have an offer at all, make it good. Don’t do something like “Ten percent off.” That just won’t work, especially if you are trying to pull customers away from your competitors. Consumers perceive changing to another company as risk. The only way they are going to take that risk is if they perceive the potential benefit as greater the perceived risk. You are not trying to make money on there first visit. You are trying to get a customer and then once you have that customer, you try to keep that customer and you hopefully try to keep that customer happy. Getting new customers is always more expensive then keeping current customers satisfied.

Try getting a press release published in the newspaper about your business. They can provide a good cheap source of customer if used correctly. Also, if you are a good writer, write find a newspaper that will let you write a column about your area of expertise. If you are a lawn care company, then do a column about lawn care and landscaping. Don’t make the column a sales pitch for your services, provide good information, and people will come to you.

If used correctly, newspaper ads can be a good source of new customers. They are a good way of getting the word out fast and they can be used to convey a lot of information. Turnaround time is very short, which allows for quick ad changes if the first version of you ad didn’t work so well. This also makes newspaper advertisements a great way to advertise sales and special events.

Top 11 Presentation/Public Speaking Tips

All of us have suffered through presentations where the presenter has provided too much information on a slide, produced a slide with font sizes that are so small it renders it unreadable, created a slide show that contained far too many slides, etc. Let’s take a look at some information you should understand before composing presentations.

#1 Topic & Purpose

One of the biggest mistakes that a presenter makes is not to clearly identify (and stick to!) the topic of the presentation. It is very effective to have a “cover” slide—much like the cover page of a paper—that might state things like who you are, who you represent, and the main topic(s) of your presentation. PowerPoint offers a way that you can link the topics on the cover slide to future slides—pulling all of the information together.

#2 Stay on Track

Before you begin preparing a slide show, ask yourself the question, “What is the topic of this presentation?” You should re-ask this question periodically throughout the presentation preparation to assure that you are staying on track.

# 3 Purpose

Closely related to identifying and keeping with the topic is determining the purpose of the presentation. Presentations can have the same topic—but much different purposes. Below are some examples of purposes:

# 4 Credibility
To inform—these presentations provide ideas, alternatives, data, or opinions. When giving this type of presentation, you act as a “teacher.” It must be accurate, reliable, and credible. It is important to cite sources and double-check your data.
To persuade—these presentations can change or reaffirm existing attitudes, try to gain audience commitment, or motivate change. Credibility is very important in this type of presentation. Thus, you must conduct conscientious research to provide truthful information. There’s nothing less persuasive than someone suspecting you’re fabricating data just to get them to agree.

# 5 Stimulating Emotions and Feelings
To motivate—these presentations heavily rely on stimulating emotions/feelings. The best way to motivate someone to act is to appeal to his/her needs. Appealing to emotional intensity is critical to putting together a successful motivational presentation.

# 6 Presentations that Acknowledge & Honor
To celebrate—sometimes presentations are made to acknowledge or honor someone, to celebrate an event, etc. When preparing this type of presentation, you should always consider the common ties that bind the participants together.

# 7 Know Your Audience
Continued from previous entry: Another important consideration when preparing a presentation is to analyze your audience. This includes such things as the size of the audience, education level, age, occupational status, attitudes, perspective, etc.

# 8 Make Your Presentation Fit Understanding of Audience
It is important that your audience understands your presentation—that it is clear and concise. Don’t use words/terms that the audience may not be familiar with and don’t use technical expressions or jargon that the audience cannot relate to.

# 9 Know as Much About Your Audience As Possible
Part of putting together a presentation is to find out as much about your audience as possible. An excellently organized presentation can be poorly received if it does not meet the needs and expectations of the audience.

# 10 Choosing Audiovisuals
There are many other audiovisual aids from which to choose when producing a presentation. Below is a brief description of some of these choices.

Advantages-Inexpensive and easily available
Disadvantages-Technology can fail (e.g. burned out bulb) and is now considered “old fashioned”

Chalkboards and Flip Charts
Advantages-Do not require electricity, chalkboards are “reusable”
Disadvantages-Hard to “hide” from audience (can’t put a piece of paper over them like an overhead) so can draw attention away from presenter

Audio and Audiovisual Equipment
Advantages-Can bring vivid examples to an audience
Disadvantages-Presents chance of technical failure, requires great effort to ensure that the audience can see and/or hear them

Advantages-Inexpensive, don’t depend on technology for their use
Disadvantages-Audience might focus on them and not the presenter

Computer-Generated Presentations
Advantages-Allow for “special effects” such as computer-played video, Internet connection, etc.
Disadvantages-Potential equipment failure and can become “overdone” and gimmicky

Click on the link below and read, 
Tips for Public Speaking

# 11 Ethics
Ethics has become a progressively more important issue in today’s workplace. An employee can save himself/herself a lot of headaches (and potential legal problems) if he/she follows the guidelines below:

Ethical Guidelines

Maintain Candor-Candor refers to truthfulness, honesty, and frankness in communication with other people. Although there may be times when openness is not preferred (such as in negotiations), it is usually wise and ethical to be as open as possible.

Keep Messages Accurate
Always try to be as accurate as possible when communicating with others. Ethical communicators don’t “embellish” stories to make them more “juicy.”


Avoid Deception-Intentional distortion is not only unethical; it can lead to uncomfortable situations. Someone may “call” you on the distortion—and the worse case scenario—it may be the end of your presentation and perhaps the end of the relationship with the customer.

Maintain Consistent Behavior-One noticeable example of unethical behavior is saying one thing and doing another. This will quickly jeopardize your image. Consistency between communication and action is imperative to being considered ethical in the marketplace.

Keep Confidences-When someone tells you something and expects you not to tell anyone else, trust has been placed in you. If you tell someone else and make her/him promise not to tell others, chances are the information will get back to the original source—undermining that person’s confidence in you.

Holding Back Information
Ensure Timeliness of Communication-Holding back information from someone can also be considered unethical. This is especially true when it is done intentionally. It’s not always what you say, but what you don’t say.

Confront Unethical Behavior
To maintain a consistent ethical viewpoint, you must confront unethical behavior when you observe it. Public acknowledgement of the behavior isn’t always necessary, but confronting someone privately sends the message that you are not tolerant of such activity.

Be Sensitive to Those Troubled by Unethical Behavior
Cultivate Empathic Listening-By lending a sensitive ear to those who are troubled by unethical behavior, you can better understand and help to solve the problems associated with these acts.

How Are RFID Tags Used and How Do They Work?

RFID Tags Technology: What Are RFID’s?

RFID stands for radio frequency identification. Radio frequency identification is a technology that uses devices called RFID transponders as an identification method. These transponders are used to store or send data that can be retrieved or sent by RFID tag or chip readers from a distance of a few feet to a few hundred feet. These RFID tags can be attached to or imbedded into a person, animal, product, and practically anything else, for the purpose of unique identification. The data that the RFID (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) tags reading device collects is sent to a database to be analyzed by people or software for various purposes.

Circuit Board Sends and Recieves Radio Wave Frequency Signals

Most RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) have an integrated circuit board that stores and processes information, modulates and demodulates radio wave frequency signals, and completes other specific functions. The circuit board is attached to an antenna that transmits and receives radio wave frequency (RF) signals. There is also a developing technology that does not require the use of integrated circuit chips. This allows the tags to be printed directly onto items and reduces the cost of creating RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices).

History of RFIDs(Radio Frequency Identification Devices}

The first invention that was similar to a RFID tag or chip was invented in 1946 by Leon Theremin, which the Soviet Union used as an espionage tool. This device was more of a passive covert listening device, not a RFID tag or chip, but it is accredited to being the technology that was used to develop the current RFID tags or chips. In 1969 Mario Cardullo invented the first true ancestor of the current RFID tags or chips. This device was similar to modern passive RFID tags, as it had memory and a passive radio transponder. A few years later in 1973 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory created the technology for the first reflected power RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices).

Types of RFIDs Used on Products

There are three general types of RFID tags or chips: active RFID tags, passive RFID tags, and semi-passive RFID tags. Active RFID tags require a power source, such as a small lithium battery. Passive RFID tags do not have an internal power supply. Semi-passive RFID tags also have a battery, but the battery only gives enough power to run the microchip but not to broadcast the signal.

Active RFID Tags or chips

Active RFID tags tend to be more reliable then the other two types of RFID tags. Because active RFID tags have an “onboard” power source, they are able to transmit higher radio wave levels; this allows them to be read from greater distances and to be more effective in environments that are not favorable to RF signals. Such environments include, but are not limited to the following: water, humans, animals, metal containers and vehicles. Active RFID tags of a range of up to 1,500 feet and have a battery life of up to 10 years and have more memory capacity then passive RFID tags or semi-passive RFID tags. The two main drawbacks of this type of RFID tag or chip are that they are larger and cost substantially more to manufacture. An example of an organization that uses this type of RFID tag is the United States Department of Defense. The USDD has used this type of tag in supply chain management and cargo transportation for over 15 years.

Passive RFID Tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices)

Passive RFID tags do not have an internal power supply; rather an electrical current is induced in the antenna by an incoming radio frequency. This provides enough power for the integrated circuit in the RFID to transmit a response. The antenna is designed to collect power from the incoming signal and to transmit what is known as a backscatter signal. Passive RFID tags have relatively short read distances compared to active RFID tags and semi-passive RFID tags. The normal distance is from about 4 inches to a few feet. The distance depends on the antenna size and the chosen radio frequency. Because there is no power supply a passive RFID can be quite small compared to the other types of tags. This type of tag is the most commonly used tag in logistics.

Passive RFID Tags Will Replace Bar Codes

As the cost of this type of RFID tag or chip continues to go down, it is expected to become as common as bar codes. In fact, many believe they will eventually replace bar codes on products. Technology is being developed that will eventually allow for RFID tags to be roll-printed, like a magazine. This would make the cost of each individual RFID tag almost nothing, making the need for barcode obsolete.

Semi-Passive RFID Tags

As mentioned earlier, semi-passive RFID (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) tags have their own power source, but this power source only powers the microchip and not the radio frequency signal. The antenna is powered in the same that the passive RFID tag receives power. The semi-passive RFID tags have greater sensitivity than passive tags and can therefore be read from much greater distances. Because the battery doesn’t power as much as the active tag battery does, it has a longer life. It can also perform functions that a passive RFID tag cannot perform.

How RFIDs Are Used on Products and in Logistics

The RFID system captures and manages detailed information about items through out the entire supply chain. The system greatly improves supply chain management by providing timely information. This includes information about when items are in storage, when they are in transit, and when they are delivered. The RFID tags or chips allow manufacturers to track the complete production history of each product. This in turn, allows them to have a better understanding of product defects and successes and to have timely information about which products should or should not be produced. Customers of the manufacturers benefit from RFID systems in a number of ways including having a dramatic reduction in out-of-stock items and by only having items that sell well produced and delivered.

RFID How it Works example

The best way to describe how the system works is to describe how an individual company implements the system. An example of a company that uses an RFID system is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has RFID readers installed on the store receiving docks that record the arrival of goods that have been shipped with RFID tags. Other RIFD readers are installed in the doorways that lead out of the storage room into the sales area. Wal-Mart then uses sales data from the point of purchase systems and from the RFID data about the number of items brought onto the sales floor to determine which items need to be restocked. This automatically creates a list of items that need to be either picked up from the storage area or shipped from the manufacturers.

Wal-Mart shares the data it collects with its suppliers through an extranet system it has created called the Retail Link. The data is used to improve inventory management because the suppliers and manufacturers know exactly where their products are located and how many need to restocked or produced.

The RFID system has helped Wal-Mart reduce the out-of-stock merchandise in its stores by over 30 percent in the first two years of the systems implementation. The system still has room for improvement, however. Because RFID tags are still relatively expensive, Wal-Mart doesn’t require each item to be tagged rather it uses RFID tags on cases of individual items. The implementation of the RFID tags cost suppliers 25 to 75 cent per case or pallet. This is not substantial when it comes to per pallet cost, but it would be costly if each item where to be RFID tagged. Once the RFID tags become cheap enough Wal-Mart will be able to tag each item and the information will be timelier and more precise. Once the technology is developed for the printable passive RFID tags, it wont be hard for Wal-Mart supplier to afford printing RFID tags on each individual product.

As can be seen by the success of the Wal-Mart example and many other examples not mentioned, RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) have great potential in not only logistics but many other areas as well. Only the future can tell how great this potential will be, but one can be sure that they will play a great role in the future and that they will part of everyone’s life in someway. Cargo management will become more efficient and companies will save money, which in turn will save everyone money.

Writing / Grammer | Commas, semicolon, Colon, Possessives, Adjectives, Nouns, Pronouns, Abbreviations, Titles

Writing / Grammer Business Communications and Grammer

Writing is an important part of doing business. Most people, me included, could deffinetly use some help when it comes to proper grammer usage, letter writing, and more. Since I'm not very good in the area myself, I'm including notes from a class I took in business communications. Clear writing and grammer is part of advertising and marketing.

Writing / Grammer When to Use a Comma

One of the toughest set of writing rules deals with when to use commas. Here is a website that can help take the “mystery” out of commas. It addresses many of the myths about commas that we were told in grade school. In fact, a really long sentence can be perfectly okay without commas; and “When you take a breath—you need a comma” is definitely not true.

Writing / Grammer Commas & Semicolons Used With Independent Clauses

· Use a comma before a conjunction that joins two independent clauses.

Our listings include several charming colonial-style houses, but none of them meet your space requirements.

Are you really interested in leasing warehouse space, or would you prefer to purchase your own facilities?

· Use a semicolon between two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction.

Semicolon Examples:
Homes in Glen Oaks are very convenient to public transportation; express buses to the business district depart every 15 minutes.

We do not think the building is structurally sound; the foundation is in need of major repairs in several places.

· Use a semicolon before the conjunction that joins two independent clauses if either of the clauses contains commas or other internal punctuation.

Semicolon Examples:
Come in on Monday, June 22; or if you prefer, call me to arrange another date.

Tom said, “I don’t want to go”; but I think he’s not telling the truth.


· Use semicolons to separate items in a series if they contain internal punctuation (such as commas).

Semicolon Examples:

Tenants are urged to take advantage of the pool, which opens May 31; the four tennis courts, which are lighted until 10 p.m.; and the exercise rooms, which include men’s and women’s saunas.

Please bring the following on the trip: a flashlight; a thermos, presently on sale at Target; and a map.

Writing / Grammer Colons

· Primarily, colons are used after the introduction of a series of items.

Colon Example:

All managers should bring the following to the meeting: a data sheet, a budget plan, and a calculator.


· When showing separate ownership, use the possessive at the end of each noun.

Seperate Ownership Examples:

Sara’s and Tom’s reports were in competition with each other.

Clara’s and Susan’s offices are adjacent to each other.

Writing / Grammer JOINT OWNERSHIP

· When showing joint ownership, only use the possessive at the end of the last noun.

Joint Ownership Examples:

Bob, Tom, and Sue’s document was submitted on time.

Tim and Alisha’s son was elected president.


· For words ending in a letter other than “s” form the possessive by adding (’s).

Form Possessives Examples:

My brother’s car is being repaired.

The men’s bowling league begins on February 1.

· For plural words ending in an “s” form the possessive by adding an apostrophe (’).


The jurors’ opinions will determine the outcome.

The committees’ schedules will be posted.

· For singular words ending in an “s” form the possessive by adding (’s).


One witness’s comment was especially helpful.

My boss’s report will be ready tomorrow.


· Spell out numbers from one through ten, but use figures for numbers 11 on.

Transcribing Numbers Examples:

We ordered eight cartons of forms.

We ordered 25 cartons of forms.

Writing / Grammer Transcribing Numbers EXCEPTIONS:

· Always use figures for percentages (5 percent)

· Always use figures for measurements (2 feet, 6 pounds)

· Always use figures when using a.m. and p.m. (1 p.m., 8 a.m.)

· Always use words for numbers that begin a sentence (Thirty-five students attended the class.)

· Use the same style to express numbers that apply to the same category within a sentence. If at least one of the numbers should be a figure, use figures for all of the numbers.


Prepare a requisition for 4 printers, 15 computers, and 6 modems.

Prepare a requisition for four printers, seven computers, and six modems.

Prepare a requisition for 4 printers, 15 computers, and 6 modems, four days ago.


· To determine if two adjectives appearing together in a sentence need a comma to separate them, ask the following question:

“Can the adjectives be switched and the sentence still sound correct?”

If the answer is yes—a comma is needed to separate them.

If the answer is no—a comma is not needed to separate them.


Bob drives a red sports car.

It was an interesting, informative speech.

HINT: Another way to check to see if a comma is necessary is to insert the word “and” in between the two adjectives. If the sentence still sounds correct, a comma is needed to separate the two adjectives.

Writing / Grammer USING “I” OR “ME”

· When determining whether to use “I” or “me,” delete the words coupled with the “I” or “me” and decide which of the pronouns sounds the best. This is the correct one to use.


They have asked Sue and me to give the presentation.

Dave and I will attend the meeting.

Writing / Grammer USE OF “SELF” PRONOUNS

· Only use “self” pronouns (myself, yourself, herself) when the noun/pronoun to which it refers has been mentioned earlier in the sentence.


I have tried to pace myself in completing the project.

Sue has resigned herself to the fact that she will not be selected.

Writing / Grammer ABBREVIATIONS

Grammer and writing is part of effective advertising and marketing. Something I need to work on too.

· An abbreviation for one word requires a period.


Doctor = Dr.

Mister = Mr.

· An abbreviation for more than one word does not require periods.


Federal Bureau of Investigation = FBI

National Football League = NFL

Writing / Grammer EXCEPTION:

Always use periods in the abbreviations U.S. and U.S.A.

Writing / Grammer TITLES

· Italicize (underline) titles of complete works such as books, magazines, newspapers, movies, television shows, albums, plays, etc.

I read about it in Newsweek.

I loved the movie Gone With the Wind.

· Use quotation marks around titles of parts of works such as articles from newspapers or magazines, chapters from books, songs, episodes from television shows, etc.


“Working Mothers” was an interesting article in People magazine.

Read Chapter 7, “How to Write a Resume.”


· Periods and commas always fall inside of the closing quotation mark.


Tim said, “I will call her tomorrow.”

“I will call her tomorrow,” said Tim.

· Semicolons and colons always fall outside of the closing quotation mark.

· Place question marks and exclamation points inside of the closing quotation mark if they are part of the quote.


James said, “Will you be attending the meeting?”

Who said, “ Give me liberty or give me death”?

Sheila exclaimed, “I can’t believe I won!”

Writing / Grammer | “WHO” VERSUS “WHOM”

· Use “who” as the subject of the sentence, and use “whom” as the object of the sentence.


Mabel was not sure whom to trust.

Bob asked Dave who had given him the document.

Below is a List of My Most Read Entries
Search Engine Optimization
Presentation Skills & Public Speaking Presentation Tips & Ideas
Sample Marketing Plan IMC Integrated Marketing Communications
72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
Business Letter Format/ Formal Letter Writing

India Facts: Economy, Population, Government, Business, & More

India Facts: History of India

India is officially named the Republic of India and is a country located in South Asia. The people of India have had a continuous civilization culture since 3300 BC., when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. India quickly became a center of important trade routes, cultural development, and vast empires. Despite invasions over the past 5000 years, Indian culture and society has been very resilient. In the earliest years of the country, the southern kingdoms remained more stable than the north and carried out trade involving spices and precious gems with Arabia, China, and Europe. From the 16th century onwards, several European countries including Portugal, Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom, started arriving as traders, later taking advantage of the relationships between kingdoms.

India Facts: Independence and Mahatma Gandhi

In the early twentieth century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and various revolutionary groups. The movement was mainly led by Mahatma Gandhi. India emerged as a modern nation-state on August 15, 1947 from British rule, when they went through an intense movement of social reforms and forged into a single nation. On January 26, 1950, they ratified a new Constitution and became a republic.

India Facts: Emerging World Superpower

Since their independence, India has seen violence and insurgencies in various parts of the country, but has maintained its unity and democracy. They also are a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations (at the time as part of British India). Significant economic reforms beginning in 1991, have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. India is now considered to be an emerging world superpower.

India Facts: Government of India

India Facts: Largest Democracy in the World

India is referred to as the largest democracy in the world, by virtue of the fact that it has the largest electing population among democratic countries. The country has a federal form of government and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. It has three branches of government, similar to that of the United States. The executive arm, which contains a Chief of State (President), Head of State (Prime Minister), and Council of Ministers or cabinet (appointed by the president), headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court which has one chief justice and 25 associate justices who are appointed by the president. The Supreme Court is headed by the Chief Justice. The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house (Council of States), and the lower house (House of People).

India Facts: Politics of India

For most of its independent history, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress; a political party. India practices Hindi law and is home to the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress, and Bharatiya Janata Parties. Since their independence, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. They took the lead during the 1950s in advocating the independence of all European colonies in Africa and Asia.

India Facts: The Cold War and India

During the Cold War, India tried to maintain its neutrality among nations. After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India’s relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. They have consistently refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program despite criticism and military sanctions.

India Facts: Close Relationships with South America, Asia, and Africa

In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with developing nations of South America, Asia, and Africa. In more recent years, India has played an influential role in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). They have also been a long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 military and police personnel having served in 35 UN peace keeping operations over four continents. Since the 1990s, India has been considered an emerging power on the global stage, meaning it has increased influence on international affairs.

India Facts: India Economy

The economy of India is fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity or PPP, with a GDP of $3.6 trillion. When measured in exchange rates in relation to the US dollar, it is the twelfth largest economy in the world, with a GDP of over $785 billion, as calculated by the World Bank. India is the second fastest growing major economy in the world with a GDP growth rate of over 9%, and annual industrial production change of over 12%, as of the first quarter in 2006. Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven; the top 10% of income groups earn an estimated 33% of all income. It is calculated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that by 2007, the Indian economy will be ranked third measured by PPP. Population below the poverty line is ranked at below 25% and as of 2005 the public debt exceeded 53%.

India Facts: Government Control of Economy

For most of its independent history they have followed a quasi-socialist approach, with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. Starting from 1991, India has gradually opened its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. Privatization of public-owned industries and some sectors to private and foreign players have continued to be subject to political debate.

India Facts: Labor Force, Agriculture, Industries, and Oil. Import Commodities

India has a labor force of over 496 million of which 60% is employed in agriculture or agriculture-related industries which contributes to only about 22% of GDP, 17% in mainstream industry, and 23% in service industry. Their agricultural produce includes rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, and machinery. Electricity production is over 556 billion kWh (kilowatt-hour) and its electricity exports are 187 million kWh as of 2003. India’s oil production is 785,000 bbl/day (barrels per day) and their oil consumption exceeds 2.3 million bbl/day. The largest import commodities are crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, and chemicals.

India Facts: Growth in Business Process Outsourcing

India’s large English speaking middle-class has contributed to the country’s growth in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). It is becoming a major base for US tech companies for future targeted research and development, including Google, IBM, and Microsoft. All this has helped the service sector to increase its share of the economy to approximately 50%.

India Facts: Major Trading Partners

The most important trading partners India deals with are the United States, China, UK, Singapore, Hong Kong, Switzerland, Belgium, and the United Arab Emirates. They are a major exporter of financial and research and technology services as well.

India Facts: India Population, India People, Demographics

India Facts: Seventh-Largest, Second Most Populous, Language & Religion

India is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and has the largest democracy in the world. India borders Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. They are the second-most populous country in the world with an estimated 1.1 billion people as of 2006. Language and religion are determinants of social and political organizations within its diverse population. 81% of inhabitants are Hindu. India is also home to the second largest population of Muslims in the world with 12%, after Indonesia. Other religious groups include Christians, Buddhists, and Jews. The national average literacy rate is 64% (males 75% and females 54%). The state of Kerala leads the country with a literacy rate of approximately 94%.

India Facts: Sex Ratio, Median Age, Birth Rate & Growth Rate

Unlike the US, UK, and Australian Censuses; the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within themselves. India’s largest metropolitan areas are Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Chennai (formerly Madras), Bangalore, and Hyderabad. The national sex ratio is 933 females per 1,000 males and the median age is 24 years. Birth rate is currently averaged at 22 births per 1,000. The total fertility rate (TFR) is above the world average; however the growth rate is decreasing in Southern India.

India Facts: Two Major Languages, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Hindi

India is home to two major languages, Indo-Aryan; spoken by 74% of the population and Dravidian; spoken by 24% of the population. The Indian constitution recognizes a total of 23 official languages. Hindi and English are used by the Union Government of India for official purposes. The number of dialects in India is well over 1,600.

Below is a List of My Most Read Entries
Search Engine Optimization
Presentation Skills & Public Speaking Presentation Tips & Ideas
Sample Marketing Plan IMC Integrated Marketing Communications
72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
Business Letter Format/ Formal Letter Writing